Weather forecast models, also known as numerical weather prediction models, are complex computer systems that replicate the behavior of the atmosphere to predict future weather conditions. These supercomputers use mathematical equations that represent the fundamental laws of physics governing the atmosphere, such as fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, and radiation transfer. Weather forecast models generate predictions of various meteorological variables, including precipitation, temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, and atmospheric pressure.
There are several types of weather forecast models used by meteorological agencies and research institutions worldwide. Some of the commonly used models include:
Weather forecast models assimilate vast amounts of observational data, including satellite imagery, ground weather station measurements, radar data, and other sources, to initialize their model runs or simulations. This data is combined with historical data and integrated into the model's calculations to produce accurate forecasts. These supercomputing models have advanced significantly over time, allowing for more accurate weather forecasting in the near and long term.
Consulting Meteorologists use the output from weather forecast models as a basis for generating weather predictions and understanding weather impacts for various industries. However, the knowledge and interpretation by Meteorologists are crucial in evaluating model output and accuracy.